The aim of this study is the education of deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents, who are often victims of exclusion and failure at school.
The first part looks at increasingly larger samples of deaf and hard of hearing students who fail at school and who are often associated with poor linguistic performance.
The following part focuses on identifying the causes of exclusion and failure and whether they are due to the condition itself or linked to the school or home environment. The deaf or hard of hearing are often perceived as being impaired, both by popular belief and by the medical community, indicating endogenous exclusion. However, recent studies have shown that the brains of the deaf and hard of hearing are biologically identical to those that hear and that they have the same linguistic competence. The fact is that sign languages have an identical structure to spoken ones, demonstrating that exclusion is exogenous, stemming from the school or home.
The third part deals with education and school, showing that exclusion is still ubiquitous, more recently as a result of providing so-called equal opportunities. It also refers to countries which have reverted this trend and adopted a theoretical educational model for the deaf and hard of hearing.
The final part analyses two Portuguese schools in which there is both ideological and oralist exclusion. However, the positive educational experience of a deaf child in a Sign Language environment is also presented.
Source: Educação de crianças e jovens surdos
From Dictatorship to Freedom
– children’s literature and contemporary Portuguese history
In April 1974, after almost half a century under the control of a political dictatorship, Portugal regained its freedom and a democracy was established. A colonial war, which lasted for more than one decade and was closely related to the fall of a fascist regime, also came to an end. It was the closing of a historical cycle with the independence of the African countries, ending the five-century lasting colonial “empire”.
This crucial moment of Portugal’s contemporary history has been revisited and recreated by some of the most relevant names of contemporary literature, namely José Saramago, António Lobo Antunes, José Cardoso Pires (and many others). However, this subject has not been forgotten by/has also been included in/has also been published in children’s literature. With commemorative, educational, interventional and other objectives/goals, the Revolução dos Cravos – the Carnation Revolution (and the time immediately before and after) has been dealt with, in both poetry and prose, and the works on the matter are published on a daily basis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to look into some of the most important Portuguese works on this subject, carried out within this subject area, highlighting/emphasising the recurrence of different themes and forms.
Source: Da Ditadura à Liberdade
Nowadays, greenspeak is ubiquitous in daily interactions, literature, the media and in the foundations of human action. It is expressed through multiple discursive types, some of which have considerably different characteristics. Nonetheless, it may be possible to identify several common features/traits of structure or function, as well as several strategies, which include discourses on the paradigm of environmentalism.
This paper analyses those characteristics, focusing its attention on the processes, which usually manipulate public opinion. This manipulation occurs through the explicit or implicit evocation of well-being, as well as through its teleological nature, its social contraction of the concept of crisis, the mimesis of scientific discourse, the hiper mediatisation of environmental issues or democratic censorship.
Source: Discurso verde e manipulação